The superficial loss rule defines certain circumstances when capital losses are denied. The details of the superficial loss rule are discussed here:

What Is the Superficial Loss Rule?

Here we’ll expand on the superficial loss rule by discussing some cases when a loss can be partially denied instead of being denied in full.

When the quantity of property reacquired (or pre-acquired or remaining) in the superficial loss period is equal to the quantity of property that was sold, the superficial loss rule denies the capital loss in full. However, in some cases where these quantities (i.e., the number of shares or units) are not equal, the superficial loss rule will sometimes allow a portion of the capital loss to be claimed while the remainder is denied. The Canada Revenue Agency describes its position on applying the superficial loss rule to the partial disposition of shares in section 12 of interpretation bulletin IT-456R:

When more items are sold than acquired, an allowable capital loss will occur. For example, if a taxpayer having initially 50 identical properties on hand sells 20 items at a loss and reacquires 15 in the relevant period, thus reducing the properties on hand to 45, the superficial loss will be limited to the 15 properties considered to be reacquired.

The partial application of the superficial loss rule can be explained in different ways, depending on the circumstances. For certain cases, the application of the rule is simpler than in others. The rule will be described below in the context of a couple classes of simpler cases, followed by a general formula that can be applied for more complex cases. The simpler cases are the following:

- When shares are sold at a loss and then partially reacquired within the superficial loss period
- When shares are purchased and then partially sold within the superficial loss period

**When Shares are Sold at a Loss and then Partially Reacquired within the Superficial Loss Period
**

This is the case where you own *A* or more shares, sell *A* shares at a loss (more than 30 days after the last acquisition date), and then reacquire *B* shares (within 30 days after the sale date) where *B* is less than *A*. No other sales or acquisitions occur during the superficial loss period.

In cases like this, the superficial loss rule will be applied based on the proportion of shares reacquired compared to the number of shares sold. If more shares are reacquired than sold (*B* > *A*) then the entire capital loss would be deemed a superficial loss. Let’s look at the following example (commissions are omitted for simplicity):

Example 1

- Buy 100 shares at a total cost of $300.00 ($3.00/share) on January 2, 2015
- Sell 100 shares with total proceeds of $200.00 ($2.00/share) on April 9, 2015
- Buy 25 shares at a total cost of $55.00 ($2.20/share) on April 10, 2015
- Shares are held for at least 30 more days and no other transactions on identical property occur within the 61-day superficial loss period

From the sale on April 9, 2015 a loss of $100.00 is realized ($200.00 – $300.00). However, since 25 shares are reacquired on the following day and the reacquired shares are held for at least 30 more days, the superficial loss rule applies. According to the CRA’s administration of the rule for the partial disposition of shares, 25% (25 / 100) of the loss would be denied. A capital loss of $75.00 can be claimed, while the remaining $25.00 would be deemed a superficial loss and can be added to the adjusted cost base of the reacquired shares (making the total ACB of the reacquired shares ($25.00 + $55.00) = $80.00).

In cases where the number of shares reacquired (*B*) is greater than the number of shares sold (*A*) then the superficial loss rule will deny the entire capital loss. In the example above, if 100 or more shares were reacquired instead of 25 shares, then the loss would be fully denied.

In cases like this where *B* is less than *A* then the following formula can be applied to determine the superficial loss:

Superficial Loss = (B / A) x (Total Loss) = ((Number of Shares Reacquired) / (Number of Shares Sold)) x (Total Loss)

The allowable capital loss can be found by subtracting the superficial loss from the total loss:

Allowable Capital Loss = Total Loss – Superficial Loss

**When Shares are Purchased and then Partially Sold within the Superficial Loss Period
**

This is the case where you purchase *A* shares, and then sell *B* shares at a loss within the superficial loss period (within 30 days following the acquisition date) where *B* is less than *A*. No other sales or acquisitions occur within the superficial loss period.

In cases like this, the superficial loss rule will be applied based on the proportion of shares remaining compared to the number of shares sold. If more shares are remaining than sold ((*A* – *B*) > *B*) then the entire capital loss would be deemed a superficial loss. Let’s look at another example (commissions are omitted for simplicity):

Example 2:

- Buy 100 shares at a total cost of $300.00 ($3.00/share) on April 9, 2015
- Sell 80 shares with total proceeds of $160.00 ($2.00/share) on April 10, 2015
- The remaining shares are held for at least 30 more days and no other transactions on identical property occur in the 61-day superficial loss period

From the sale on April 10, 2015 a loss of $80.00 is realized ($160.00 – ($300.00 x (80 shares / 100 shares))). However, since the shares were acquired on the previous day (within the superficial loss period) and the remaining shares are held for at least 30 more days, the superficial loss rule applies. According to the rules for partial disposition of shares, 25% (20 / 80) of the loss would be denied. This means that a capital loss of $60.00 can be claimed, while the remaining $20.00 would be deemed a superficial loss and can be added to the adjusted cost base of the remaining shares (making the total ACB of the remaining 20 shares (($300.00 x 20 / 100) + $20.00) = $80.00).

In cases where the number of shares remaining (*A* – *B*) is more than the number of shares sold (*B*) then the superficial loss rule would deny the entire capital loss. In the example above, if 50 or fewer shares were sold instead of 80 shares, the loss would be fully denied. In other words, in cases like this, when less than half the shares are sold then the loss is fully denied. When more than half the shares are sold then the loss is partially denied.

In cases where (*A* – *B*) is less than *B* (more than half the shares are sold) then the following formula can be applied to determine the superficial loss:

Superficial Loss = ((A – B) / B) x (Total Loss) = ((Number of Shares Remaining) / (Number of Shares Sold)) x (Total Loss)

The allowable capital loss can be found by subtracting the superficial loss from the total loss:

Allowable Capital Loss = Total Loss – Superficial Loss

**When Multiple Acquisitions and/or Multiple Dispositions Occur Within the Superficial Loss Period**

When the superficial loss period (the time window beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the date of disposition) contains multiple sales and/or multiple acquisitions then it can become more complex than the two types of scenarios described above.

In such cases the following general formula for the superficial loss rule for partial dispositions of property can be used:

Superficial Loss = (min(S, P, B) / S) x (Total Loss)

where S is the number of shares sold, P is the total number of shares acquired during the 61-day superficial loss period, and B is the number of shares remaining at the end of the superficial loss period. Note that min(S, P, B) indicates the minimum value among S, P and B.

And once again:

Allowable Capital Loss = Total Loss – Superficial Loss

If we apply the general formula with the two simpler cases above (where only one acquisition and one disposition occur during the superficial loss period) it should yield the same results. But the formula can also be used for more complex cases where there are multiple sales and/or multiple acquisitions during the superficial loss period.

**Avoid Headaches by Deferring the Entire Capital Loss for Simplicity**

The conditions for partially applying the superficial loss rule for partial dispositions provide an advantage to Canadian investors. Instead of using a strict interpretation of the superficial loss rule in these kinds of cases that denies losses in full, the CRA allows investors to partially claim the loss.

But you’re not obligated to partially claim the loss; you can opt for the entire loss to be denied (and carried forward in most cases). If the loss is relatively small it may not be worth the headache of performing these calculations to determine the partially allowable loss. And remember that when the superficially loss rule denies a capital loss, the amount of the capital loss can usually be added to the ACB of the reacquired shares, so that the loss is effectively carried forward as opposed to being permanently denied.

**Applying the Superficial Loss Rule to the Partial Disposition of Shares with AdjustedCostBase.ca**

AdjustedCostBase.ca is a web-based application that allows Canadian investors to track ACB and calculate capital gains. AdjustedCostBase.ca supports the superficial loss rule by identifying many cases where the rule may apply and allowing users to apply the rule. It can also be used to partially deny a capital loss.

Let’s take another look at example 1 from above:

- Buy 100 shares at a total cost of $300.00 ($3.00/share) on January 2, 2015
- Sell 100 shares with total proceeds of $200.00 ($2.00/share) on April 9, 2015
- Buy 25 shares at a total cost of $55.00 ($2.20/share) on April 10, 2015

After entering these transactions on AdjustedCostBase.ca you should see the following:

A capital loss of $100.00 is indicated for the sale on April 9, however, you’ll see a warning that the superficial loss rule may apply. Indeed, the rule applies in this case due to the reacquisition of 25 shares on the following day. However, since only a partial amount of shares were reacquired, you’re allowed to claim a loss of $75.00 while $25.00 of the loss is denied, as described above in the original example.

To apply the superficial loss rule, click on the “Edit” link for the April 9 sale to edit the transaction. Then check off the “Apply Superficial Loss Rule” checkbox, set the “Adjusted Capital Loss” to $75.00 and ensure that the “Add Reduction in Capital Loss to ACB” is checked off. The form should appear as follows:

After editing the transaction the list of transactions should appear as follows:

The capital loss has now been reduced from $100.00 to $75.00. Also, the reduction in capital loss has been added back to the ACB.

Note that AdjustedCostBase.ca does not automatically apply the superficial loss rule for you. Although you’ll see superficial loss rule warnings being displayed in many cases, it’s up to you to edit the transaction to apply the superficial loss rule. Also, in cases where you’re partially claiming a loss due to the superficial loss rule, you’ll need to manually calculate the partial capital loss using the methods described above.

Jas RaiHi, I transferred 100,000 shares of Stock X and contributed it to my RRSP. The superficial loss amount is $4000. I still own shares of Stock X in my regular margin account. Do I need to put anything in the field “Adjusted Capital Loss” or leave it blank.

thanks.

AdjustedCostBase.caJas,

In this case the Adjusted Capital Loss field should be set to $0 since the loss is fully deferred. You can also leave the field blank and it will have the same effect.

FrankHi,

Does the superficial loss rule apply to the following example?

I have owned 500 shares of Company A for more than 60 days with an ACB of $10/share ($5000 in total).

Company B has agreed to purchase Company A for a total of $8 per share consisting of $6 per share in cash and $2 per share of Company B shares.

The cash received for my 500 shares is $3000 and the value in shares of Company B is $1000.

If I wish to keep the shares of Company B can I claim a loss of ($5000(0.75) – $3000) =$750 for the cash portion that I received or is that fully denied as a superficial loss.

Would the ACB of the newly acquired shares with a present value of $1000 be $1250?

Thanks.

AdjustedCostBase.caFrank,

The tax rules for acquisitions can vary. Your best bet is to look for documentation on the tax implications for this specific merger.

In general, the ACB allocation for Company B would be based on the ratio of the value of shares received and the total compensation, multiplied by your existing ACB for company A. So it would likely be equal to ($2/$8) * $5,000 = $1,250. But again you should look for the documentation that’s specific to this case.

I don’t think that the superficial loss rule would apply because shares of Company A and Company B are not identical properties.

CGJudging by the general formula, I think I have a partial capital loss I can claim in this situation, but the two basic cases don’t cover this case so I’m not positive.

Shares acquired before 61 day period:

5,457

Shares acquired less than 30 days before sale:

361

Shares Sold:

1393

(No activity less than 30 days after sale)

By my calculations, 361/1393 is a superficial loss (25.9%). The rest I could claim as a capital loss. This seems to go along with the rules in the CRA bulletin, but doesn’t seem to align with your blog post. Comments?

AdjustedCostBase.caCG,

Your case does apply for either of the two simplified cases above (after making a purchase you sold more shares than were purchased) so you need to use the general formula:

Superficial Loss = (min(S, P, B) / S) x (Total Loss)

= (min(1393, 361, (5457 + 361 – 1393)) / 1393) x (Total Loss)

= 0.2592 x (Total Loss)

which matches what you calculated.

ralph nicholsonhow can these losses be filed correctly to reflect superficial tax loss rule? THX

[redacted]

AdjustedCostBase.caRalph,

You can enter your transactions on AdjustedCostBase.ca and you’ll see warnings when the superficial loss rule may apply, as described here:

http://www.adjustedcostbase.ca/blog/applying-the-superficial-loss-rule-with-adjusted-cost-base-ca/

LeslieIf one were to sell all shares of a security in a non-registered account at a loss, but still hold some shares of it (purchased prior to the superficial loss period) in a registered account, would this result in a partial superficial loss? Based on this formula:

Superficial Loss = (min(S, P, B) / S) x (Total Loss)

Would B be non-zero, since there are still shares held in the registered account?

AdjustedCostBase.caPost authorLeslie,

Yes, shares held in registered accounts need to be factored in. However, for the superficial loss rule to be triggered you would need to purchase some shares (in any of your accounts) within the superficial loss period.

StefI am having difficulty following all the examples. Here is my situation:

I have a nonregistered account and I have let’s say 1000 shares of XXX.

I move 30-60% of the shares to registered accounts ( or sell in source account and buy back in those registered accounts) . I have a small capital loss on the shares transferred. I am not very interested in claiming the loss. Can I carry those losses forward in the ACB?

AdjustedCostBase.caPost authorStef,

When transferring shares from a registered account to a non-registered account, the superficial loss rule will apply when you incur a capital loss. This loss will be permanently denied as you cannot add the loss back to the ACB of any shares in your non-registered account.

Note also that the superficial loss rules for a partial disposition of shares would not apply in that case because the number of shares deemed to have been disposed of and the number of shares deemed to have been reacquired are equal.

StefThanks for the fast answer. It seem that I actually sold in the source account ( that is a company account that I control) and bought back after 2 days in the registered personal account. What happens if I reacquire the same number of shares in the source account within the 30 days. Would that save the capital gain loss for the source account?

AdjustedCostBase.caPost authorStef,

The superficial loss would apply in that case, and you would not be able to claim the loss. You would need to wait at least 30 days to repurchase the shares in order to avoid the superficial loss rule.

StefIt seems my question was not clear. What I really care is to be able to carry forward the superficial loss in he ACB. So in my case here is the sequence of events:

-have 1000 shares in a company account

– I sold 200 shares with a loss

-after 2 days in a registered account I bought 500 shares of the same stock

I still have 20 days or so to make a trade within the 30 days window in the original account. My goal is to “save the superficial loss” in the ACB.

Isn’t enough that I still owe 800 shares in the original account to adjust its ACB with the superficial loss?

Would buying 200 shares in the original account achieve that?

AdjustedCostBase.caPost authorStef,

The only certain way I’m aware of to avoid the loss being classified as a superficial loss would be to sell all of your shares of this type – both in your registered account and non-registered account. Then the loss would be allowable, as long as you avoid repurchasing the shares for at least 30 days.

JacobAs an example:

– I purchase 100 shares of XYZ in 2016

– I sell 50 shares of XYZ on May 1, 2018 at a capital loss in my non-registered account.

The very next day, on May 2, 2018, I make the following two purchases:

– 50 shares of XYZ in my separate registered account

– 50 shares of XYZ in my non-registered account

According to the formula in this blog post, this should be a superficial loss with the entire amount being denied.

My question is: can I add the loss to my adjusted cost base in my non-registered account, or is the loss permanently denied because I also purchased the same shares in my registered account?

AdjustedCostBase.caPost authorJacob,

Yes, the entire capital loss would be a superficial loss in that case.

In cases with the repurchase of shares occurs in a registered account, the capital loss is permanently denied and cannot be added back to the ACB of any remaining shares in a non-registered account. I’m not sure what would happen in the case where shares are repurchased in both non-registered and registered accounts. In this particular case it would seem fair to allow half of the loss to be added back to the ACB of the shares in the non-registered account, but I’m not entirely sure.

TS ChauI have a question regarding the following:

Date Qty Price Cost Adj Total Qty Total Cost “Average Cost” Gain/Loss

2018-11-03 300 35 10,500.00 300 10,500.00 35.00

2018-11-05 100 28 2,800.00 400 13,300.00 33.25

2018-11-07 300 25 7,500.00 700 20,800.00 29.71

2019-01-03 100 22 2,200.00 800 23,000.00 28.75

2019-02-01 -100 25 -2,500.00 700 20,125.00 28.75 -375.00

Within the 61 day period:

Superficial Loss = (min(S, P, B) / S) x (Total Loss)

Where S = sold, P = purchased, B = remaining (balance)

Applying the above formula to the sell on 2019-2-1:

Sold 100

Bought 100

Balance 0

Superficial Loss = (min(100, 100, 0) /100) x (375) = 0

This means the total capital loss of 375.00 can be claimed. Does this make sense or did I miss something somewhere?

AdjustedCostBase.caPost authorTS,

Your share balance at the end of the superficial loss period appears to be 700 shares. In that case the entire capital loss would be considered superficial.

JonThanks for the informative post. I was hoping you could clarify something for me. Would the same sale be used to create a capital loss multiple times beyond its initial number of shares?

ie: If I made the following transactions:

2016-01-01: Buy 500 XYZ at $100/share

2018-02-01: Buy 100 XYZ at $100/share

2018-02-05: Sell 100 XYZ at $50/share (loss)

2018-02-08: Sell 100 XYZ at $50/share (another loss)

Would all 200 share be denied the capital loss or would the first superficial loss use-up the buy and a capital loss be allowed on the second 100 shares?

AdjustedCostBase.caPost authorJon,

Based on my interpretation of the general formula:

Superficial Loss = (min(S, P, B) / S) x (Total Loss)

For the Feb. 5th sale, S would be 100, P would be 100 and B would be 400. Therefore 100% of the loss would be denied (but could be added back to the ACB). For the Feb. 8th sale, the values would be the same: S would be 100, P would be 100 and B would be 400. Again 100% of the loss would be denied.

Arguably, the two sales could be combined, resulting in S = 200, P = 100 and B = 400, in which case 50% of the loss would be allowable. However, I’m not clear on which method should be used.

hank masterI have the following pattern of sells and buys of pennyshare stock of ABC corp. (I am not a day trader and normally do not trade often).

Begin with holding of 1,912,650 shares of ABC,

May 14, sell 550,000 shares,

May 22, buy 200,440 shares,

May 22, sell 107,358 shares, (different broker account)

May 24, sell 225,750 shares,

May 24, sell 993,000 shares, (different broker account)

May 24, buy 92,200 shares,

May 24, buy 890,000 shares, (different broker account)

May 28, sell 200,440 shares,

May 28, sell 95,200 shares, (different broker account)

May 28, sell 890,000 shares (different broker account)

June 19, buy 4,008,800 shares.

all of these sales were made at a capital loss. How do I calculate the superficial loss for this series of transactions and what percent of the cap loss is left for the allowed part of the capital loss for each sale?

Thanks for the informative help but the previous examples were to simple for me to figure out how to handle this and if I can somehow sum the sales and the buys to simplify these transactions? I have resisted adding the transactions of the same day in order to report each broker account seperately.

Thanks for your help.

hank masterPlease clarify for me: Is it the case the the 30 day count pre the sale in question starts on the transaction date, but the 30 day count post the sale in question ends on the settlement date?

sounds off to me, but is that the case?

hank masterAnother thing that confuses me in the more complex cases that have multiple sales (at a loss) that are just several days apart how that stretches the the overall time frame to consider superficial loss? Does that change the time frame for the earlier sale just before this one? How do you determine the applicability of the second condition in these cases where we are out of the time frame of the earlier sale but still within the time frame of the latter sale and so on when there are more sales. And when there are buys inbetween them, how does that change things?

AdjustedCostBase.caPost authorHank,

You can use the formula above for each sell transaction:

Superficial Loss = (min(S, P, B) / S) x (Total Loss)

For example, for the sale on May 14, S would be 550,000, P would be (200,440 + 92,200 + 890,000) = 1,182,640 and B would be (1,912,650 – 550,000 + 200,440 – 107,358 – 225,750 – 993,000 + 92,200 + 890,000 – 200,440 – 95,200 – 890,000) = 33,542. This would give a percentage of (min(550,000, 1,182,640, 33,542)/550,000) = 6.1%. Therefore 6.1% of the loss would be superficial and 93.9% of the loss would be allowable.

This would need to be repeated for each sale. For each sale, the time frame is +/- 30 days from the settlement date of the sale.

Another option to simplify the calculations would be to cancel the entire loss and add it to your ACB. This would result in deferring your capital losses rather than them being permanently denied. This is especially worthwhile if you close out your position before the end of the year, as it will not impact the net capital gain or loss reported for the year.

The superficial loss period should be the period that starts/end 30 days before/after the settlement date.